G797 VK4PK - Digital Mobile Radio (DMR)

Digital Mobile Radio (DMR)

  1. The Digital Mobile Radio Standard
  2. VK-DMR - The Australian Digital Network
  3. DMR Repeater Frequencies
  4. VK-DMR Network Bridges and Dashboards
  5. DMRGateway Rewrite Rules
  6. Dynamic Reflectors
  7. Connecting to DMRPlus
  8. North America Talk Groups
  9. Setting Default Option Strings in DMRGateway
  10. Hotspots
  11. Simplex Contacts
  12. Why do we have DMR-MARC and Brandmiester Networks
  13. OpenBridge
  14. Using Reflectors for DMRPlus on MMDVM Repeaters
  15. VK-DMR Net
  16. Proprietary - Internet Protocol Site Connect (IPSC)
  17. Open Source - Internet Protocol Site Connect (IPSC)
  18. DMRLink Project
  19. Analog_Bridge
  20. HBLink - HomeBrew Repeater protocol as used by DMR+, MMDVM and Brandmeister
  22. dmrconfig - a utility for programming dmr radios
  23. DecodingSW
  24. Cross Mode Functionality
  25. VK-DMR Newsletters
  26. OE7DRT - My MMDVM Hotspot
  27. Ascii Console
  28. References

Related Pages:
  1. DMR-Repeaters and Frequencies
  2. VK-DMR Talk Groups and Time Slots
  3. DMR Gateway
  4. The VK4RDB Repeater at Mt Cotton


The Digital Mobile Radio Standard

DMR is an acronym for Digital Mobile Radio.

There are four operational areas to DMR:

  1. User operator - usually with a hand held radio.
  2. Hotspot operator - a private low power interconnect to the Internet
  3. Repeater operator - An RF repeater station to provide coverage in a geographic area
  4. Network Operator - manage your own IPSC bridge (such as the c-Bridge™) or DMRGateway
    The network operator is server based and builds regional networks that
    interconnect to the other DMR networks.

The standard defines a two-slot TDMA channel access method thus allowing two simultaneous voice or data calls on a 12,5kHz radio channel. DMR was originally designed by ETSI for land mobile, commercial communications in the 66-960MHz band. This is evident in the user interface where numbers are used in lieu of call signs. DMR modulates with 4FSK, indicating that it uses 4 frequencies (compared to D-Star with 2 frequencies). This allows to double the data rate to 9600 bit/s. The higher rate allows the transmission of 2 channels at the same time (2 time slots).

Be aware that you have to enter the talk-group number into the receive group list of many radios too, or your squelch will not open. This is a common error made by first time users and it is very frustrating. ­

The standard is divided into four chapters:

Source: dmrassociation.org

The standard also refers to three tiers:


VK-DMR - The Australian Digital Network

Website for Australian DMR: VK-DMR - The Australian DMR Network




DMR Repeater Frequencies

Repeaters and Frequencies (local)


VK-DMR Network Bridges and Dashboards

Australia has two server, located in a data centre somewhere in Australia.

Use the following links to monitor the status of the two core servers responsible for linking all repeaters currently supporting the VK-DMR network.


DMRGateway Rewrite Rules

Rewrite Rule enable DMR Gateway to pass traffic to the different networks. The rule apply to Talk Groups (TG) and Private calls (PC). https://github.com/g4klx/DMRGateway/wiki/Rewrite-Rules


Dynamic Reflectors

Talk Group 9, Time Slot 2 has a special use.

TG9-2 is used to dynamically select a specific reflectors. This provides access to the DMRPlus network of reflectors. A list of reflectors may be found at

TG9 on TS1 is local to an individual repeater. TG9 on TS2 is used to link an individual repeater to a reflector. In both situations, you would likely not hear anything unless you happened to be listening to that repeater.

To access reflectors, the radio must also be programmed with the TGs you are attempting to access

TG5000 checks your local repeater status. You then use the reflector number you wish to connect to as the tx TG – i.e. TG4400 for ref 4400.

Once you have connected, use TG9 to communicate via the reflector. TG4000 is used to disconnect your repeater from the reflector, or you can just let the reflector time out. Timeouts are normally set from 10 to 15 minutes after the last communication on that talkgroup.

Description Reflector   TS  Talk Group  DMR     DMR+
WWE         4629        2   TG91
                        2   TG9
VK-DMR      84800       2   TG8         505     4800
VK-DMR      84801       2   TG8         3801    4801

UNLINK      84000

UK Call     4400        2   TG2300
UK Chat     4401        2   TG2351
UK Chat     4402        2   TG2352

?????       9900        2   TG9990
BM AUST                 2   TG13
JA???                   2   TG53099


Connecting to DMRPlus



North America Talk Groups

This table shows the North America DMR Talk Groups as defined by DMR-MARC Motorola Amateur Radio Culb) and their mapping to DMRPlus Reflectors. The DMRPlus reflector numbering system is an Open convention agreed upon by various interest groups.
Talkgroup Name
13114581DMR+ Quebec (French)
13314639DMR+ USA (English)
13414380DMR+ Latin America (Spanish)
14314404DMR+ United Kingdom (English)
15314851DMR+ South Pacific (English)
316914640Midwest Regional
317214642Northeast Regional
317314643MidAtlantic Regional
317414644Southeast Regional
317514645Southern Plains Regional
317614646Southwest Regional
317714647Mountain Regional
302014590Newfoundland/PEI Provincial
302114591Nova Scotia Provincial
302214592Quebec Provincial
302314593Ontario Provincial
302414594Manitoba Provincial
302514595Saskatechewan Provincial
302614596Alberta Provincial
302714597British Columbia Provincial
302914599New Brunswick Provincial

Source: http://dmr-marc.net/FAQ/dmrplus-america.html


Setting Default Option Strings in DMRGateway

Examples of option stringsin the Options box on the configuration page: in the Options box on the configuration page.



The VK DMR network supports hotspots.

Settings to join the VK-DMR+ Master server for connections into the VK-DMR Network:

Dongles/openspot/dv4min 143/153 haven't worked for a while unfortunately. You can use TG9 on slot 2 to connect to any DMR+ reflector.i etc:
• Server: he.vkdmr.net
• Port: 8880

• Server: he.vkdmr.net
• Port: 55555

DMR+ reflectors are mapped to VK-DMR talk groups as described in the table below.

Note that DMR+ reflector 4800 keys TG505 which is every VK DMR repeater.
Hotspots can experience network latency due to the nature of the internet connection.
DMR+ reflector VK DMR TG
4800 505 – VK wide
4801 3801 VK1 ACT
4802 3802 VK2 NSW
4803 3803 VK3 VICTORIA
4804 3804 VK4 QUEENSLAND
4807 3807 VK7 TASMANIA
4808 3808 slot 2 user activated chat channel
4809 3809 slot 1 user activated chat channel


Simplex Contacts

Simplex Frequency: 439.200MHz (The Digital Voice Calling Frequency)
Use TG99/TS1.


Why do we have DMR-MARC and Brandmiester Networks

Ben Fergus Goes back quite a way. As far as I know the first amateur DMR network was DMR-Marc.

They started off Motorola only. Hence the name DMR- Motorola Amateur Radio Club.

They were very hostile originally to anything not Motorola. Very much against the general amateur ethos having a closed in system but at the time it was what it was.

Then along came DMR+ which allowed non Motorola repeaters. Hytera and then hotspots etc. It was more the network for experementing in the early days. However at the time you still only had commercial repeaters available so really it was still limited.

At some point DMR-MARC started to allow Hytera repeaters on the network but that was still only 2 commercial choices.

Then the major change was when MMDVM came along. It opened up the option of building a completely home brew repeater.

Around the same time along came Brandmeister and that gave a good network to run our new MMDVM repeaters.

The ethos of Brandmeister is in the name. A complete mix of brands and protocols on a completely open network and giving control to the repeater owners instead of all control being held by the network runners.

For quite a while DMR-MARC ignored Brandmeister and kept their closed ethos. But over time they kept loosing more and more repeaters and users to Brandmeister. Brandmeister grew at a huge rate simply because repeater owners wanted choice that DMR-MARC would not give them. A good percentage of repeaters were new MMDVM repeaters and another good percentage were repeaters poached from MARTC.

At some point VK-DMR forked away from DMR-MARC and I have seen a huge change in their ethos for the better since the split with a much more open network giving users much more choice.

I didn't think much of the VK-DMR network before the changes but since their change in ethos they have made some big changes which I respect.

This is an exciting time in digital radio with more choice than ever and do many avenues to learn and play with.

I have only concentrated on the main networks you will hear about, and it is a limited summary as I typing this on my phone while in a waiting room so I have left a lot out. But hopefully it gives you a bit of an idea of some of the history as I am aware of things.



OpenBridge is an open protocol to link DMR servers. Protocol designed in cooperation between BrandMeister team and Kurt OE1KBC. OpenBridge is very simple protocol that allows to send call streams between servers. Protocol is based on MMDVM protocol and supports DMRD packets only.


Using Reflectors for DMRPlus on MMDVM Repeaters

As with MMDVM hotspots, When using MMDVM repeaters to connect to DMR Plus talkgroups, use TG8. Then to change reflectors, enter the Private Call reflector code and transmit for a few seconds. An announcement through the DMR Gateway will confirm the active reflector.

As a convenience, you can program the codeplug the keypad fast dial keys as follows:



The usual VK-DMR Net time is 0900Z on TG 5/TS1. The Net Controller and Co-ordinator is Peter, VK4NBL

Thanks to the tireless efforts of the co-rdinator, Peter VK4NBL, this net has become a pillar of the VK DMR fraternity in Australia and is very well supported with regular attendances close to the fifty mark.

Watch for announcements on Peters's Facebook page:

Peter selects a topic for discussion for each Tuesday night net and posts this on
The VK DMR Network Facebook Page:

Some local times for the net are:

UTC +8		AWST	Australian Western Standard Time	Perth	 	Tuesday, 5:00 pm
UTC +9:30	ACST	Australian Central Standard Time	Darwin	  	Tuesday, 6:30 pm
UTC +10		AEST	Australian Eastern Standard Time	Brisbane	Tuesday, 7:00 pm
UTC +10:30	ACDT	Australian Central Daylight Time	Adelaide	Tuesday, 7:30 pm
UTC +11		AEDT	Australian Eastern Daylight Time	Sydney		Tuesday, 8:00 pm


Proprietary - Internet Protocol Site Connect (IPSC)

IP Site Connect (IPSC) is a vendor specific repeater feature offered by some manufacturers. Note that MototrboTM repeaters will only interconnect over the Internet with other MototrboTM repeaters because it is not part of the ETSI specifications and the manufacturers don’t want to interconnect their infrastructures. Motorola Solutions MototrboTM IPSC implementation allows up to 15 MototrboTM repeaters operating in DMR mode to be connected on a fully meshed IP network, with one of the repeaters (or a c-BridgeTM) serving as a Master and all of the others as Peers. Any traffic originating on one of the interconnected repeaters is relayed over the IP network to each of the other repeaters. The Peers will first establish a connection with the Master and obtain the database of the other Peers along with their IP and port addresses.

The more repeaters in this fully meshed IPSC network, the more IP network bandwidth required for each repeater. A single Peer connected to a Master requires 15 kbps for each time slot participating in the IPSC network, 6 kbps for link management, and 55 kbps for RDAC (Remote Diagnostics and Control) traffic; if both time slots are participating in IPSC, 91 kbps bandwidth is required; each additional Peer requires 36 kbps bandwidth. The Master requires an additional 3 kbps bandwidth for each Peer in the network. The MototrboTM System Planner has full details about calculating necessary bandwidth for repeater operators. To expand beyond the limits of basic IPSC network requires the utilization of a bridge to interconnect the different IPSC networks. These bridges require static IP addresses and larger IP network bandwidths than individual repeaters.

The c-Bridge TM supports individual managers for each repeater (micro- segmentation), which is an improvement over having the c-Bridge TM manager connected to a network of repeaters; this gives the ability to reduce bandwidth requirements and customize Talk Group availability for individual repeaters. The c-BridgeTM manager can serve as either a Master or Peer on an IPSC network. The c-Bridge TM allows for network connections to other IPSC networks, and other c-BridgesTM utilizing Control Center (CC) connections. The c- BridgeTM allows for the management of Talk Groups on an always-on, scheduled, or on-demand (PTT) basis. Models (upgradeable) are available to support 5, 15, 30, and 50 repeaters and they also support 100 CC connections between c-BridgesTM.

The c-BridgeTM also supports the interconnection of non-DMR audio sources utilizing an optional USB analog dongle and vocoder module. Remember, someone is paying for all of the infrastructure and monthly operating costs. If a club is operating your local DMR repeater, join and support the operation. If an individual is operating the local repeater, donate to support his ongoing expenses. Repeater operators should also be supporting their bridge operators. Besides the cost of the infrastructure equipment, there are also recurring monthly expenses for rent, utilities (power and Internet), insurance, and maintenance.

Source:https://www.raqi.ca/~ve2rae/dmr/Amateur_Radio_Guide_to_DMR.pdf - By John S. Burningham, W2XAB February 2015


Open Source - Internet Protocol Site Connect (IPSC)

This application is now superseded by the DMRGateway application. Details of the DMRGateway project can be found here:
DMR-Gateway.html (Local)
DMRplus IPSC protocol Specs for homebrew DMR repeater by DL5DI,G4KLX,DG1HT 2015

The specification for IPSC for the Home Brew DMR Repeater was initial written by DL5DI and was based on specifications from Jonathan Naylor G4KLX for the repeater side. Torsten Schultze DG1HT added requirements, and Hans-J. Barthen DL5DI added requirements for the network/reflector side.

A copy of the specification is found here: DMRplus_IPSC_Protocol_for_HB_repeater.pdf (Local)


The DMRLink - Motorola MotoTRBO IPSC Client project repository:
https://github.com/n0mjs710/DMRlink, Thia is an open Source IPSC Client. It details building an open-source
IPSC "stack", troubleshooting IPSC performance issues, and as a basis to easily
write applications such as logging, bridging, etc. [Top][Home]


Steve Zingman, N4IRS, Analog_Bridge Repository:

The purpose of analog bridge is to encode and decode PCM (analog audio) to AMBE for use with https://github.com/n0mjs710/DMRlink and https://github.com/n0mjs710/HBlink.


Cortney T. Buffington, N0MJS, HBLink respository can be found here:

Thanks to the work of Jonathan Naylor, G4KLX; Hans Barthen, DL5DI; Torsten Shultze, DG1HT we have an open protocol for internetworking DMR repeaters. Unfortunately, there's no generic client and/or master stacks. This project is to build an open-source, python-based implementation. This is a non-commercial license. Atribution is required if you use it.

For those who will ask: This is a piece of software that implements an open-source, amateur radio networking protocol. It is not a network. It is not indended to be a network. It is not intended to replace or circumvent a network. People do those things, code doesn't.

This work represents the author's interpretation of the HomeBrew Repeater Protocol, based on the 2015-07-26 documents from DMRplus:
The IPSC Protocol Specs for homebrew DMR repeater" as written by Jonathan Naylor, G4KLX; Hans Barthen, DL5DI; Torsten Shultze, DG1HT.



Outside Motorola MOTOTRBO is known as DMR. See the article What is MOTOTRBO? at:


dmrconfig - a utility for programming dmr radios

DMRconfig is a utility for programming digital radios via USB programming cable.

Supported radios: https://github.com/sergev/dmrconfig?fbclid=IwAR2zfb0XShcUc_UmhvRyNdHbIgokm2Fz9VQ7BoO_IdSoVy_8SgLf6eP1R5Y



Digital Speech Decoder 1.7.0-dev by Jared Szechy : https://github.com/szechyjs/dsd

The DSD Wiki has lots of additional information about DSD including build instructions and answers to the most frequently asked questions. The Wiki can base be found here: https://github.com/szechyjs/dsd/wiki

Supported Formats

Unsupported Formats
Supported Demodulation Optimization Source: https://github.com/szechyjs/dsd/wiki/Supported-formats

Another java based decode is Ian Wraith's DMRDecode


Cross Mode Functionality

AMBE-based Cross Modes Systems:
  • use a DMR transceiver to access D-STAR, C4FM, NXDN networks
  • use s D-STAR® transceiver to access DMR, C4FM, NXDN® networks
  • use your C4FM transceiver to access DMR, D-STAR®, NXDN®, P25 networks
  • use your NXDN® transceiver to access DMR, C4FM, D-STAR® networks
  • use your P25 transceiver to access C4FM networks

  • In all these cases access to a AMBE vocoder chip is required for Hardware transcoding

  • Software-based Cross Modes Systems:
  • C4FM transceiver to access P25 networks
  • P25 transceiver to access C4FM networks
  • In these case software transcoding is used.



    VK-DMR Newsletters

    VK-DMR Newsletters:
    No 1. VK & ZL DMR Network Newsletter September 2015
    No 2. VK & ZL DMR Network Newsletter October 2015
    No 3. VK & ZL DMR Network, Newsletter December 2015
    No 4. VK DMR Network Newsletter July 2016, Issue 4, July 2016
    VK-DMR Talk Groups Added Jan 2017 (Local Cache)
    No 8. VK-DMR Newsletter, Issue 8, April 2018


    OE7DRT - My MMDVM Hotspot



    Ascii Console

    A script for the HDMI console, or an SSH session, to watch DMR and/or YSF traffic (including DMR2YSF and YSF2DMR cross-modes) on a pi-star MMDVM hotspot, without a GUI or web browser.




    Amateur Radio Guide to Digital Mobile Radio (DMR) by John S. Burningham, W2XAB, February 2015:

    Glenn Lyons VK4PK
    Ver:gnl20190313 - pre published v0.9