Ubiquiti 900Mhz Data Link

Contents:

  1. Key Poitns to Note
  2. Data Link Layer
  3. Specification
  4. Australian 900Mhz Band
  5. 900Mhz 2x2 MIMO Antennas
  6. Documentation
  7. Software Applications
  8. Path Analysis
  9. MiMo Antennas
  10. Cabling to Rocket M900
  11. Surge Protection
  12. Orders for Ubiquiti Rocket M900 and Accessories
  13. Ubiquiti 24V POE Explained
  14. Line of Site and the Fresnel Zone
  15. A Possible 5GHz Solution
  16. Implementation Plan

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Key Poitns to Note



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Data Link Layer

The data layer, or layer 2, is the second layer of the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking. This layer is the protocol layer that transfers data between adjacent network nodes in a wide area network (WAN) or between nodes on the same local area network (LAN) segment
The data link layer has three main functions:

Source:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_link_layer

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Specification

http://dl.ubnt.com/datasheets/rocketmgps/Rocket_M_GPS_Datasheet.pdf

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Australian 900Mhz Band

Australian Government ACMA Logo
https://www.acma.gov.au/Industry/Spectrum/Radiocomms-licensing/Class-licences/shortrange-spreadspectrum-devices-fact-sheet

ACMA Radiocommunications (Low Interference Potential Devices) Class Licence 2000:
https://www.acma.gov.au/-/media/Spectrum-Engineering/Information/pdf/ifc49-2012-lipd_variation-rcomms_lipd_class_licence_2000-pdf.pdf?la=en

IOTA - IoT Alliance of Australia - Spectrum available for IoT
http://www.iot.org.au/wp/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/IoTSpectrumFactSheet.pdf

ACMA - Product supply and compliance - Commonly supplied equipment:
https://www.acma.gov.au/Industry/Suppliers/Product-supply-and-compliance/Commonly-supplied-equipment/wi-fi-bluetooth-and-other-low-powered-radiocommunications-transmitters

Must only purchase Rocket M900 with custom firmware that is compatible with the
Australian Frequency and Power (EIRP) standards.


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900Mhz 2x2 MIMO Antennas

The airMAX® Yagi Antenna performs at ultra-long ranges in Non-Line-of-Sight (NLOS) applications.
Image

AMY-9M1 airMAX 900 MHz Yagi Antenna Datasheet:
https://dl.ubnt.com/datasheets/airmaxyagi/airMAX_900MHz_YAGI_Antenna.pdf

AMY-9M16 airMAX Yagi Antenna Quick Start Guide:
ttps://dl.ubnt.com/guides/yagi/airMAX_Yagi_AMY-9M16_QSG.pdf

Universal Arm Mounting Bracket:
Image
https://ubwh.com.au/Ubiquiti/Accessories/UB-AM

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Documentation

User Guide for the Operating System for Ubiquiti M-eries Products -Release Version: 6:
https://dl.ubnt.com/guides/airOS/airOS_6_UG.pdf

Datasheet for Rocket M-Series, Powerful 2x2 MIMO airMAX® BaseStations:
https://dl.ubnt.com/datasheets/rocketm/RocketM_DS.pdf

Explanation of TDMA technology used by the Rocket M-Series of products:
https://dl.ubnt.com/datasheets/airmax/UBNT_DS_airMAX_TDMA.pdf

Quick Start Guide for the Rocket-M, Carrier Class airMAX BaseStation:
https://dl.ubnt.com/guides/Rocket_M/RocketM_Series_QSG.pdf

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Software Applications

https://www.ui.com/download/#app

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Path Analysis

Free Space Path Loss Calculator
Free Space Path Loss Calculator:
Pasternack's Free Space Path Loss Calculator calculates the loss (in dB) between
two antennas where the gain, distance and frequency are known.

https://www.pasternack.com/t-calculator-fspl.aspx

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MiMo Antennas

MiMo Antenna Explained MiMo is an acronym for "multi in multi out". Most wireless broadband modems sold these days contain MiMo technology. MiMo technology enables the device to dynamically set up many signal paths to optimise transmission and reception to the tower. When a 4G modem is used in a 4G coverage area and, if the 4G signal is strong enough, the modem will switch to MiMo mode usually resulting in higher data speed.

https://www.comnet.com.au/Antennas/MiMo-Antenna-Explained

https://www.telcoantennas.com.au/site/how-does-mimo-work

MIMO can be sub-divided into three main categories:

  1. Precoding
  2. Spatial Multiplexing (SM)
  3. Diversity Coding.

Precoding is multi-stream beamforming, in the narrowest definition. In more general terms, it is considered to be all spatial processing that occurs at the transmitter. In (single-stream) beamforming, the same signal is emitted from each of the transmit antennas with appropriate phase and gain weighting such that the signal power is maximized at the receiver input. The benefits of beamforming are to increase the received signal gain – by making signals emitted from different antennas add up constructively – and to reduce the multipath fading effect. In line-of-sight propagation, beamforming results in a well-defined directional pattern. However, conventional beams are not a good analogy in cellular networks, which are mainly characterized by multipath propagation. When the receiver has multiple antennas, the transmit beamforming cannot simultaneously maximize the signal level at all of the receive antennas, and precoding with multiple streams is often beneficial. Note that precoding requires knowledge of channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter and the receiver.

Spatial Multiplexing requires MIMO antenna configuration. In spatial multiplexing,[33][34] a high-rate signal is split into multiple lower-rate streams and each stream is transmitted from a different transmit antenna in the same frequency channel. If these signals arrive at the receiver antenna array with sufficiently different spatial signatures and the receiver has accurate CSI, it can separate these streams into (almost) parallel channels. Spatial multiplexing is a very powerful technique for increasing channel capacity at higher signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). The maximum number of spatial streams is limited by the lesser of the number of antennas at the transmitter or receiver. Spatial multiplexing can be used without CSI at the transmitter, but can be combined with precoding if CSI is available. Spatial multiplexing can also be used for simultaneous transmission to multiple receivers, known as space-division multiple access or multi-user MIMO, in which case CSI is required at the transmitter.[35] The scheduling of receivers with different spatial signatures allows good separability.

Diversity Coding techniques are used when there is no channel knowledge at the transmitter. In diversity methods, a single stream (unlike multiple streams in spatial multiplexing) is transmitted, but the signal is coded using techniques called space-time coding. The signal is emitted from each of the transmit antennas with full or near orthogonal coding. Diversity coding exploits the independent fading in the multiple antenna links to enhance signal diversity. Because there is no channel knowledge, there is no beamforming or array gain from diversity coding. Diversity coding can be combined with spatial multiplexing when some channel knowledge is available at the transmitter.
Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MIMO

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Cabling to Rocket M900

External Grade UTP Patch Cable
TOUGHCable-Pro [TC-Pro] $206.25 inc GST:
305m roll of Outdoor Grounded, External CAT5e with drain wire (A-Tick Compliance) $246.51 https://ubwh.com.au/Ubiquiti/Accessories/TC-Pro

TOUGHCable Datasheet:
https://secure.ubiquitishop.com.au/files/toughcable/toughcable_datasheet.pdf

External Grade UTP Patch Cable
Shielded RJ45 Connector - bag of 20 [CABLE-CON-20] $22.50
https://ubwh.com.au/Ubiquiti/Accessories/CABLE-CON-20

PDF Manual showing how to fit earthed shielded connectors to data cable:
https://secure.ubiquitishop.com.au/files/toughcable/toughcable_pro_qsg.pdf

External Grade UTP Patch Cable
1m Grounded, External CAT5e [D0423] $23.50 inc GST
https://ubwh.com.au/Accessories/D0423

External Grade UTP Patch Cable
20m Grounded, External CAT5e : $44.55
https://ubwh.com.au/Accessories/D0214

External Grade UTP Patch Cable
30m Grounded, External CAT5e $56.69:
https://ubwh.com.au/advanced_search_result.php?keywords=cat+5

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Surge Protection

Image

It is imperative that all Ubiquiti™ devices mounted externally on a pole/tower use a mechanism to ground the device

For added protection, it is recommend to install two GigE PoE surge protectors. Install the first surge protector within one meter of the M900 data port, and install the second surge protector at the ingress point of the location housing the wired network equipment.


Ethernet Surge Protector PoE+100M RJ-45 Model: ETH-SP $18.84 inc GST ea
https://dl.ubnt.com/datasheets/ETH-SP/Ethernet_Surge_Protector_DS.pdf

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Orders for Ubiquiti Rocket M900 and Accessories

Ubiquiti Rocket M900

Notes to the Order:

The length of Mt Cotton data cable has been estimates as half the height of the tower, assumed to be 34 meter(100 ft), plus 3 meters from tower to the earthed bulkhead of the radio shed. Measurements must be confirmed on site.

The length of the hosts site cabling is assumed to be 20 meters. Measurements must be confirmed on site.

The M900 comes with a AC mains to 24 volt power injector, I have specified an additional DC 9 to 36 volt power injector so the link can remain active during maions power outages. This will have to be supplied with 12 volts DC. I consider it good policy to rely upon the DC power source over mains.

The earth bulkhead plate in the shed will have to provide for a data cable penetration and the affixing of a ETH-SP-G2 surge protection device.

Quote from Freenet Warehouse Pty Ltd
https://ubwh.com.au/
(Trading as UBWH Australia and UBIQUITI WAREHOUSE)

2 x 	Rocket M900	                  365.56               $731.12
4 x 	Ethernet Surge Protector	  $18.84 ea             $75.36
1 x 	TOUGHConnector - box of 100	                        $80.97
1 x 	POE 9-36 DC to 24V DC	                                $50.39
2 x 	Universal Arm Bracket	           12.06                $24.12
1 x 	900 MHz 16 dBi MIMO Yagi Pair	                       $319.31
1 x 	305m Grounded, External CAT5e (A-Tick)	               $246.51
                                                             ---------
                                         Sub-Total:	     $1,527.78
           TNT (Road Express (5 - 12 Day Road Freight)):       $162.59
                   Loss/Damage Cover:	                        $22.95
           Included GST 10.0%:                                 $155.76
                                                             ---------
                                                   Total:    $1,713.32



Alternative Suppliers
From Mwave Brisbane: $278.98 per pair + $15.50 Delivery
https://www.mwave.com.au/product/ubiquiti-networks-airmax-yagi-amy9m162-900mhz-2x2-mimo-highgain-antenna-ab68728

From Amazons Australia: $283.00 per pair + $32.59 Delivery
https://www.amazon.com.au/s/ref=nb_sb_noss?url=search-alias%3Daps&field-keywords=Ubiquiti+AMY-9M16+AirMax+Yagi+Antenna+900+MHz+2x2+

Freenet Antennas: $494.57 per pair + Delivery
http://store.freenet-antennas.com.au/product_info.php?products_id=530
Contact Details for ubwh.com.au
Rob - Ph 08 6262 3333
Freenet Warehouse Pty Ltd
http://store.freenet-antennas.com.au/
t/a UBWH Australia
ABN 79 153 180 888
Email: store@ubwh.com.au
Ph:02 8412 8312
Office: 3 Barker Place
Bicton WA 6157
Payment Options accepted
Freenet Warehouse Pty Ltd only accepts two method of payment:
Conditions of Sale
Freenet Warehouse Pty Ltd Conditions of Sale:
https://ubwh.com.au/conditions.php

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Ubiquiti 24V POE Explained

The Ubiquiti Rocket M900 products are powered by non-standard 24V Power-over-Ethernet (POE).

Common POE standards uses 48V DC. Ubiquiti is Non-Standard using 24V DC.

Notes:

Line of Site and the Fresnel Zone

The link path measures approximately nine kilometers and passes thru some tree tops.
Link path measurement
Line of Sight
Fresnel Zone
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fresnel_zone

airMAX - Planning an Outdoor Wireless Link
https://help.ubnt.com/hc/en-us/articles/204952224-airMAX-Planning-an-Outdoor-Wireless-Link

Trees (and any obstacle within the Fresnel Zone) affect RF in two ways:

The higher your frequency, the more opaque obstacles become; at "light" frequencies obstacles are fully opaque. For maximum throughput, you must assure you have a clear Fresnel Zone. If you do not have a clear Fresnel Zone, then throughput will suffer.

5 GHz can actually get through a tree or two if signal levels are high enough. However, not with 100 Mbps throughput. For that, you need a 100% clear Fresnel Zone. 2 GHz can actually get through a grove of trees if signal levels are high enough. However, not with 100 Mbps throughput. For that, you need 100% clear Fresnel Zone.

900 MHz can actually get through a quarter mile of trees if you can get the radios high enough to assure the Fresnel Zone does not intersect the ground, even so you won't get 100 Mpbs throughput. For that, you need 100% clear Fresnel Zone.

How much loss is incurred impossible to precalculate due to the complex nature of RF ray analysis. If there is an incursion to the Fresnel Zone there is no authoritative way to predict how much of an impact it will have on throughput (and latency) or overall performance. Experimentation is the only solution.

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A Possible 5GHz Solution

Ubiquiti PowerBeam 5AC Gen2:
https://www.wireless4now.com.au/ubiquiti-powerbeamac-gen2.html?gclid=CjwKCAjw1KLkBRBZEiwARzyE7xLC54kOWyx_xbGnkJGCNIr6pw1YXtO6Q94BRAyJtDjjfTzYPRN2yRoCvJ0QAvD_BwE

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WDS - Wireless Distribution System

airMAX - How to Configure a PtP Link Network Diagram.png

A Wireless Distribution System (WDS) lets you connect multiple access points together. WDS allows the connected access points to communicate with each other via wireless connection.

Wireless Distribution System:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wireless_distribution_system

Note: When using WDS, it is possible that the maximum wireless throughput may be halved after the first hop since one of the WAPs in a pair has to retransmit the information during the communication of the two sides. STEP 1: Configue the Rocket M server (ISP's router) end.
Configure this end first. I changed the SSID as wel so I copuld recognise it later in STEP 2.

1. Choose the "Wireless" tab, and only change:

Wireless Mode: Access Point
WDS: [X] Enable
Click the Change button
2. Choose the "Network" tab, and only change:

IP Address: 192.168.5.30 (or IP address to suit your network)
Click the Change button
Click the Apply button
3. Reboot or power cycle the modem off and on before using this link for the first time.
To Configue the Rocket M client (remote) end.

1. Choose the "Wireless" tab, and only change:

Wireless Mode: Station
WDS: [X] Enable
Click the Change button

2. Choose the "Network" tab, and only change:

IP Address: 192.168.5.31 (or IP address to suit your network)
Click the Change button. The "change" button only changes the page display.
If you do not click "Apply" all is lost on reboot.

3. Click Apply. This forces a reboot. Be patient it take a unusually long time
to reboot. 

4. Reboot or power cycle the modem off and on before using this link for the first time.

Implementation Plan

Test Plan for the implementation of the 900MHz Ubiquiti Data Link:
  1. Read manuals
  2. Power up equipment and test
  3. Load software.
  4. Design speed test
  5. Test directionallity short range
  6. Test directionallity long range
  7. Short range test across paddock
  8. Design Pole fixing with mechamism to easily raise and lower pole
  9. Install Base Station ISP connected and perform Short Range test before taking the pair to the remote station.
  10. Temporary Install the rempote on Pole and do Long Range testing.
  11. Long term test to determine impacts of time of day, weather and interference.
  12. Publish Test results
  13. Permenant installation at the remote site.


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Glenn Lyons VK4PK
glenn@LyonsComputer.com.au
Ver:gnl20190310 - pre published v0.9